Most Common Word Sense

Overview

The most common word sense algorithm’s goal is to extract the most common sense of a target word. The input to the algorithm is the target word and the output are the senses of the target word where each sense is scored according to the most commonly used sense in the language. note that most of the words in the language have many senses. The sense of a word a consists of the definition of the word and the inherited hypernyms of the word.

For example: the most common sense of the target_word burger is:

definition: "a sandwich consisting of a fried cake of minced beef served on a bun, often with other ingredients"
inherited hypernyms: ['sandwich', 'snack_food']

whereas the least common sense is:

definition: "United States jurist appointed chief justice of the United States Supreme Court by Richard Nixon (1907-1995)"

Our approach:

Training: the training inputs a list of target_words where each word is associated with a correct (true example) or incorrect (false example) sense. The sense consists of the definition and the inherited hypernyms of the target word in a specific sense.

Inference: extracts all the possible senses for a specific target_word and scores those senses according to the most common sense of the target_word. the higher the score the higher the probability of the sense being the most commonly used sense.

In both training and inference a feature vector is constructed as input to the neural network. The feature vector consists of:

  • the word embedding distance between the target_word and the inherited hypernyms

  • 2 variations of the word embedding distance between the target_word and the definition

  • the word embedding of the target_word

  • the CBOW word embedding of the definition

The model above is implemented in the MostCommonWordSense class.

Dataset

The training module requires a gold standard csv file which is list of target_words where each word is associated with a CLASS_LABEL - a correct (true example) or an incorrect (false example) sense. The sense consists of the definition and the inherited hypernyms of the target word in a specific sense. The user needs to prepare this gold standard csv file in advance. The file should include the following 4 columns:

|TARGET_WORD|DEFINITION|SEMANTIC_BRANCH|CLASS_LABEL

where:

  1. TARGET_WORD: the word that you want to get the most common sense of.

  2. DEFINITION: the definition of the word (usually a single sentence) extracted from external resource such as Wordnet or Wikidata

  3. SEMANTIC_BRANCH: the inherited hypernyms extracted from external resource such as Wordnet or Wikidata

  4. CLASS_LABEL: a binary [0,1] Y value that represent whether the sense (Definition and semantic branch) is the most common sense of the target word

Store the file in the data folder of the project.

Running Modalities

Dataset Preparation

The script prepare_data.py uses the gold standard csv file as described in the requirements section above using pre-trained Google News Word2vec model 1 2 3. Pre-trained Google News Word2vec model can be download here. The terms and conditions of the data set license apply. Intel does not grant any rights to the data files.

python examples/most_common_word_sense/prepare_data.py --gold_standard_file data/gold_standard.csv
     --word_embedding_model_file pretrained_models/GoogleNews-vectors-negative300.bin
     --training_to_validation_size_ratio 0.8
     --data_set_file data/data_set.pkl

Training

Trains the MLP classifier (model) and evaluate it.

python examples/most_common_word_sense/train.py --data_set_file data/data_set.pkl
               --model data/wsd_classification_model.h5

Inference

python examples/most_common_word_sense/inference.py --max_num_of_senses_to_search 3
     --input_inference_examples_file data/input_inference_examples.csv
     --word_embedding_model_file pretrained_models/GoogleNews-vectors-negative300.bin
     --model data/wsd_classification_model.h5

Where the max_num_of_senses_to_search is the maximum number of senses that are checked per target word (default =3) and input_inference_examples_file is a csv file containing the input inference data. This file includes a single column wherein each entry in this column is a different target word

Note

The results are printed to the terminal using different colors therefore using a white terminal background is best to view the results

1

Tomas Mikolov, Kai Chen, Greg Corrado, and Jeffrey Dean. Efficient Estimation of Word Representations in Vector Space. In Proceedings of Workshop at ICLR, 2013.

2

Tomas Mikolov, Ilya Sutskever, Kai Chen, Greg Corrado, and Jeffrey Dean. Distributed Representations of Words and Phrases and their Compositionality. In Proceedings of NIPS, 2013.

3

Tomas Mikolov, Wen-tau Yih, and Geoffrey Zweig. Linguistic Regularities in Continuous Space Word Representations. In Proceedings of NAACL HLT, 2013.